Predicting Santri Engagement by Attachment to Caregiver


  • Ali Ridho Univerisitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang


attachment to caregiver, engagement, santri


This study explores the predictive relationship between santri (students in Islamic boarding schools, pesantren) engagement and their attachment to caregivers. Drawing upon a sample of 99 santris (65 males and 34 females) from a boarding school for students aged 10 to 20 years (M = 15.75, SD = 2.16), this research employs convenience sampling and sophisticated questionnaire analysis. Applying the graded response model (GRM) for calibration, the study precisely estimated the santris' scale scores of engagement and attachment, which were subsequently analyzed through regression to examine the predictive capacity of attachment to caregiver on student engagement. Results indicated a significant relationship (b = 0.43, p < 0.01), emphasizing the importance of attachment to caregivers in predicting santri engagement within the pesantren context. The application of GRM enhanced the precision of scaling attachment and engagement. It bolstered the regression analysis's validity, confirming the hypothesis that caregiver attachment can reliably predict student engagement in boarding school settings.


Agustina, F. R., & Rusmawati, D. (2022). Hubungan antara Efikasi Diri dengan Student Engagement pada Santri di Pondok Pesantren Mahasiswa Bina Khoirul Insan Semarang. Jurnal EMPATI, 11(5), 332-336.

Ahmed, U., Umrani, W. A., Qureshi, M. A., & Samad, A. (2018). Examining the links between teachers support, academic efficacy, academic resilience, and student engagement in Bahrain. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5(9), 39-46.

Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427-454.

Azmi, I. N. (2024). Hubungan Stres Akademik dengan Student Engagement Pondok Pesantren di Kota Bandung. Bandung Conference Series: Psychology Science, 4(1).

Bumbacco, C., & Scharfe, E. (2020). Why Attachment Matters: First-Year Post-secondary Students’ Experience of Burnout, Disengagement, and Drop-Out. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 24(4), 988-1001.

Byrne, Z., Albert, L., Manning, S., & Desir, R. (2017). Relational models and engagement: an attachment theory perspective. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 32(1), 30-44.

Charteris, J., & Page, A. (2021). School Bonding, Attachment, and Engagement through Remote Learning: Fostering School Connectedness. New Zealand Journal of Teachers' Work, 18(2), 91-108.

Fachmi, T. (2022). Pengaruh Self-Efficacy terhadap School Engagement Santri Pondok Pesantren. Geneologi PAI: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 9(1).

Ferrando, P. J., & Navarro-González, D. (2021). A Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Continuous and Graded Responses With Error in Persons and Items. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 81(6), 1029-1053.

Gallarin, M., & Alonso-Arbiol, I. (2013). Dimensionality of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Evaluation with the Spanish Version. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16, E55, Article E55.

García-Rodríguez, L., Iriarte Redín, C., & Reparaz Abaitua, C. (2023). Teacher-student attachment relationship, variables associated, and measurement: A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 38, 100488.

Hart, J., Nailling, E., Bizer, G. Y., & Collins, C. K. (2015). Attachment theory as a framework for explaining engagement with Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 33-40.

Havik, T., & Westergård, E. (2020). Do Teachers Matter? Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Interactions and Student Engagement. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(4), 488-507.

Hefner, R. W. (2011). Civil islam: Muslims and democratization in indonesia. Princeton University Press.

Humphreys, J. (2020). Maternal and Teacher Attachment as Predictors of Student Engagement. Psychology of Education Review, 44(2), 3-11.

Karim, A., Fathurrohman, O., Muhammadun, Saripudin, W., Rahmat, D., & Mansir, F. (2023). Altruistic works, religion, and corruption: Kiais’ leadership to shape anti-corruption values in pesantren. Cogent Social Sciences, 9(1), 2238968.

Li, M., Zheng, Y., Xie, Y., & Li, X. (2023). Friendship quality and positive emotional adjustment among boarding adolescents: roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction. Current Psychology.

Lukens-Bull, R. (2010). Madrasa by Any Other Name: Pondok, Pesantren, and Islamic Schools in Indonesia and Larger Southeast Asian Region. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 4(1), 1-21.

Martin, A. J., Papworth, B., Ginns, P., & Malmberg, L.-E. (2016). Motivation, engagement, and social climate: An international study of boarding schools. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(6), 772-787.

Martinez-Fuentes, S., Jager, J., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2021). The mediation process between Latino youths’ family ethnic socialization, ethnic–racial identity, and academic engagement: Moderation by ethnic–racial discrimination? Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 27(2), 296-306.

McNeish, D., & Wolf, M. G. (2020). Thinking twice about sum scores. Behavior Research Methods, 52(6), 2287-2305.

Nkomo, L. M., Daniel, B. K., & Butson, R. J. (2021). Synthesis of student engagement with digital technologies: a systematic review of the literature [Article]. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18, 1-26.

Pinquart, M. (2023). Attachment Security with Mothers and Fathers: A Meta-Analysis on Mean-Level Differences and Correlations of Verbal Attachment Measures. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

Ridho, A. (2023). Work Engagement: A Conceptual Review [Keterikatan Kerja: Sebuah Reviu Konseptual]. Buletin Psikologi, 31(1), 56-79.

Ridho, A. (2024). Multidimensionality of student engagement construct: The exploratory and confirmatory item response model. Testing, Psychometric, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 31(1), xx-xx.

Rohman, A., Muhtamiroh, S., Imron, A., & Miyono, N. (2023). Integrating traditional-modern education in madrasa to promote competitive graduates in the globalization era. Cogent Education, 10(2), 2268456.

Romano, L., Angelini, G., Consiglio, P., & Fiorilli, C. (2021). Academic Resilience and Engagement in High School Students: The Mediating Role of Perceived Teacher Emotional Support. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 11(2), 334-344.

Roorda, D. L., Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2021). Don’t forget student-teacher dependency! A Meta-analysis on associations with students’ school adjustment and the moderating role of student and teacher characteristics. Attachment & Human Development, 23(5), 490-503.

Salmela‐Aro, K., Tang, X., Symonds, J., & Upadyaya, K. (2021). Student Engagement in Adolescence: A Scoping Review of Longitudinal Studies 2010–2020. Journal of Research on Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell), 31(2), 256-272.

Samejima, F. (1997). Graded Response Model. In Handbook of Modern Item Response (pp. 85-100). Springer-Verlag.

Soffer, T., & Cohen, A. (2019). Students' engagement characteristics predict success and completion of online courses. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(3), 378-389.

Wang, M.-T., & Hofkens, T. L. (2020). Beyond Classroom Academics: A School-Wide and Multi-Contextual Perspective on Student Engagement in School. Adolescent Research Review, 5(4), 419-433.




How to Cite

Ridho, A. (2024). Predicting Santri Engagement by Attachment to Caregiver. Jurnal Psikogenesis, 12(1), 84–93.