Usia merokok pertama kali merupakan faktor yang meningkatkan risiko kejadian hipertensi: Besar risiko kejadian hipertensi menurut pola merokok

Santi Martini, Lucia Y. Hendrati

Abstract


Cigarette smoking is a main risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; one of them is hypertension. However, studies on hypertension still showed no significant relationship. The objective of the study was to assess odds ratio (OR) of the development of hypertension based on smoking pattern. The study was an observational research with case-control design. The inclusion criterias of the cases group consisting of 75 persons were hypertension patients and smokers, did not have any diseases related to hypertension, and participating in this study voluntary with informed consent. The control group consisting of 75 persons were smokers without primary and secondary hypertension, and participating in this study voluntary with informed consent. The analysis showed that persons who had smoked for 33 – 58 years were 5,21 times (95% CI with OR 2,02 – 13,68) more likely to have hypertension and persons who had smoked for 18 – 32 years were 3,78 times (95% CI with OR 1,51 – 9,58) more likely to have hypertension than those who had smoked for less than 18 years. Based on multivariate analysis, persons who smoked first time at 16 – 18 years old were 4,81 times (95% CI with OR 1,79 – 12,94) more likely to have hypertension than those who smoked at 19 years old and higher. Persons who smoked as many as 10 – 20 cigarettes a day were 3,02 times (95% CI with OR 1,19 – 7,63) more likely to had hypertension than those who smoked less than 10 cigarettes a day. The increasing factors for the development of hypertension were age initiation of smoking (16-18 years old), number of cigarettes smoked per day (10-20 sigarettes), and length of smoking habit (more than 17 years). Considering that smoking is a risk factor for hypertension, the most important measure is to run immediately “a comprehensive anti smoking campaign” whose target is not only smokers to stop smoking but teenagers as well, in order not to become a smoker. So, anti smoking campaign should be directed to earlier age group such as elementary school students.

Keywords


odds ratio; hypertension; age initiation of smoking

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33476/jky.v14i3.1842

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