Body mass index and predicted percent body fat of Yogyakarta and Flores Pygmy populations

Janatin Hastuti, Neni T Rahmawati, Rusyad A Suriyanto, Koeshardjono Koeshardjono, T Jacob T Jacob


Body mass index and percent body fat are two parameters used to assess human body composition, which has several advantages for clinical practice, sport, growth, and normal population as well. There are many populations distributed in the wide Indonesian area that have various geographical characteristics. As evidence, plateau environments are inhabited by many populations whose physical and physiological traits are vary. This study was aimed to investigate body mass index (BMI) and predicted percent body fat (%BF) between Yogyakarta populations and Flores pygmy population in East Nusa Tenggara Province residing on a similar plateau environment. The present study was done on 105 people (51 males and 54 females) of Samigaluh Kulon Progo (Yogyakarta), 87 people (40 males and 47 females) of Gunung Kidul (Yogyakarta) and 75 pygmy people of Manggarai, Flores (East Nusa Tenggara). Height and weight were measured in all participants of this study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements and %BF was predicted based on BMI value using formula of Guricci et al (1998). Then, t-student test, linear regression, and chi square test were performed to analyze the data. The results indicated that Samigaluh and Gunung Kidul populations in Yogyakarta have considerably greater average of height and weight compare to Flores Pygmy population. However, differences in BMI and %BF were only significant between Flores Pygmy and Yogyakarta males population. Despite majority of both populations being under normal category, nutritional category based on BMI showed significant difference between Flores Pygmy and Yogyakarta population. In addition, more underweight individuals were also observed in Flores Pygmy. In conclusion, Yogyakarta population was considerably taller and heavier than Flores Pygmy population, however, in terms of %BF and BMI, they were nearly the same lean and body constitution. It is suggested that lower BMI and %BF represented by small body constitution and leanness in populations living on plateau in Yogyakarta and Flores are likely due to significant adaptation to their environment.


body mass index; percent body fat; Yogyakarta populations; Flores Pygmy population

Full Text:



Abernethy P, Olds T, Eden B, Neill M, Baines L 1996. Anthropometry, health and body composition, in Norton K. dan T. Olds (eds): Anthropometrica. Sydney: Univ. of New South Wales Press, pp 365-388.

Allison DB, Zhu SK, Plankey M, Faith MS, Heo M 2002. Differential associations of body mass index and adiposity with all-cause mortality among men in the first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES I and NHANES II) follow-up studies. Int. J. Obes. (26): 410-416.

Bappeda Kabupaten Kulon Progo 1999. Evaluasi Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kabupaten Kulon Progo, Laporan Kompilasi Data. PT Tatareka Paradya, Yogyakarta.

Baumgartner RN 2005. Age, in Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang Z, Going SB (eds): Human Body Composition, 2nd Edition.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp 259-270.

Davies PSW 2005. Anthropometry and body composition, in Ulijaszek, SJ, Mascie-Taylor CGN (eds): Anthropometry: the Individual and the Population. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 130-140.

Daniel WW 2005. Biostatistics: a Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences. 8th ed. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Deurenberg P, Weststrate JA, Seidell JC 1991. Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. Brit. J. Nutr. (65): 105-114.

Deurenberg P, Yap M, van Staveren WA 1998. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups. Int. J. Obes. (22): 1164-1171.

Deurenberg P, Yap MD, Wang J, Lin FP, Schmidt G 1999. The impact of body build on the relationship between body mass index and percent body fat. Int. J. Obes. (23): 537-542.

Deurenberg P, Deurenberg-Yap M, Wang J, Lin FP, Schmidt G 2000. Prediction of percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Singaporean and Beijing Chinese. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 9(2): 93-98.

Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JGAJ, Deurenberg P 2001. Body fat measurement among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indian: a comparative study using a four-compartment model and different twocompartment models. British J. Nutr. (85):491-498.

Dierkes J, Schultink JW, Gross R, Praestowo, SMB, Pietrzik K 1993. Body composition of Indonesian adults assessed by skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance measurements and by a body mass index equation. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (2):171-176.

Durnin JVGA 1995. Appropriate technology in body composition: a brief review. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 1-5.

Durnin JVGA, Womersley J 1974. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br. J. Nutr. 32: 77-97.

Frst P, Leweling H 1995. The interplay between nutrition and body composition. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 95-101.

Gallagher D, Visser M, Sep?lveda D, Pierson RN, Harris T, Heymsfield SB 1996. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am. J. Epidemiol. 143 (3): 228-239.

Gurrici S, Hartriyanti Y, Hautvast JGAJ, Deurenberg P 1998. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (52): 779-783.

Gurrici S, Hartriyanti Y, Hautvast JGAJ, Deurenberg P 1999. Differences in the relationship between body fat and body mass index between two different Indonesian ethnic groups: The effect of body build. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (53): 468-472.

Hastuti J, Jacob T, Aswin S 2005. Ciri-ciri antropometris dan kapasitas vital penduduk di dataran tinggi Samigaluh dan dataran Rendah Galur. Sains Kesehataan 18(2): 261-76.

Heyward VH, Wagner DR 2004. Applied Body Composition Assessment, 2nd Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp68-75.

Idema KT, B. H-H. Hsu-Hage, Y-H. Li, ML Wahlqvist, X Rao, K Zhang, TH Kuang, DL Zhang, ZR Dai 1998. Body composition as predictor of blood pressure in three communities in Guangdong province, China. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 7 (1): 70-76).

Jackson AS, Stanforth PR, Gagnon J, Rankinen T, Leon AS, DC, Skinner JS, Bouchard C, Wilmore JH 2002. The effect of sex, age and race on estimating percentage body fat from body mass index: the Heritage Family Study. Int. J. Obes. (26): 789796.

Jacob T 2006. The nanosomic and microsomic archaeological and living populations of Indonesia, in Simanjuntak T, Hisyam M, Prasetyo B, Nastiti TS (eds): Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective, R.P. Soejonos Festschrift. Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), pp 117-123.

Kesteloot H, Ndam N, Sasaki S, Kowo M, Seghers V 1996. A Survey of blood pressure distribution in pygmy and Bantu populations in Cameroon. Hypertention. 27: 108-113.

Kpper J, Bartz M, Schultink JW, Lukito W, Deurenberg P 1998. Measurements of body fat in Indonesian adults: Comparison between a three-compartment model and widely used methods. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 7(1):49-54.

Larson I, Henning B, Lindroos AK, Nslund, Sj?str?m CD, Sj?str?m L 2006. Optimized predictions of absolute and relative amounts of body fat from weight, height, other anthropometric predictors, and age. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (83):252-259.

Lasker GW 2005. Anthropometry in human biology, in Ulijaszek, S.J. dan C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor (eds): Anthropometry: the Individual and the Population. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press., pp 1-6.

Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorel R (Eds) 1988. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books, pp 3-8.

Malina RM 2005. Variation in body composition associated with sex and ethnicity, in Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang Z, Going SB (eds): Human Body Composition, 2nd Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp 271-298.

Migliano AB, Vinicius L, Lahr MM 2007. Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies. PNAS. 104 (51): 20216-20219.

Montagu FFA 1951. An Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 2nd ed. Illinois: Charles C Thomas Pub., pp 311-318.

Olivier G 1969. Practical Anthropology. Illinois: Charles C Thomas Pub., pp 5-10 .

Pandey AK 2006. Anthropometry of female Onges of Little Andaman. Anthropologist. 8 (2): 99-102. Pemerintah Kabupaten Gunung Kidul, available at

Prijatmoko D, Strauss BJG 1995. Using low-cost body composition technology for health surveillance. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 15-17.

Roche AF 1995. Body composition of ethnic groups in the US. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 63-67.

Rutishauser IHE 1995. Body composition in Aboriginal Australians. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 73-76.

Rusyad AS 2005. The Manggaraian People: Rampasasa Kampung, Waemulu Village, Waerii District, Manggarai Regency, Flores Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province. Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University: Research Report, pp 1-10.

Sahani RK 2003. Nutritional and health status of the Jarawas. J. Anth. Survey of India. 52: 47-65.

Schultink W, van Raaij JMA 1995. Seasonal changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of rural Beninese women. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 89-84.

Schutz Y, Kyle UUG, Pichard C 2002. Fat-free mass index and fat mass index percentiles in Caucasians aged 18-98 y. Int. J. Obes. (26): 953-960.

Shen W, St-Onge M-P, Wang Z, Heymsfield SB 2005. Study of Body composition: an overview, in Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang Z, Going SB (eds): Human Body Composition, 2nd Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp. 3-14.

Shephard RJ 2005. Body Composition in Biological Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 24-28.

Solomons NW, Mazariegos M 1995. Low-ccost appropriate technologies for body composition assessment: a field researchs view. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 19-22.

Supariasa IDN, Bakri B, Fajar I 2001. Penilaian Status Gizi. Jakarta: EGC. Pp: 59-62.

Tanaka S, Togashi K, Rankinen T, Prusse L, Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C 2002. Is adiposity at normal body weight relevant for cardiovascular disease risk? Int. J. Obes. (26): 176-183.

Tanphaichitr V, Leelahagul P 1995. Clinical needs and opportunities in assessing body composition. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. (4): 23-24.

Wang J, Thornton JC, Russel M, Burastero S, et al 1994. Asian have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: Comparisons of anthropometric measurements. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Bethesda 60 (1): 23-28.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 YARSI Medical Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Copyright of YARSI Medical Journal.

Powered by OJS.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License.