Pemendekan Telomer Pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus (DM)

M Syamsul Mustofa

Abstract


Diabetes Melitus (DM) merupakan suatu penyakit multisistem dengan ciri hiperglikemia akibat kelainan sekresi insulin, resistensi seluler terhadap insulin, atau kedua-duanya. Kelainan tersebut menyebabkan abnormalitas dalam metabolisme karbohidrat, lemak, dan protein. Kelainan metabolisme dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan DNA telomer. Tulisan ini membahas tentang pemendekan telomer pada penderita Diabetes Melitus. Penderita diabetes melitus mengalami peningkatan stres oksidatif, yang secara simultan diikuti oleh penurunan sistem pertahanan antioksidan, ketidakseimbangan antara stres oksidatif dan mekanisme pertahanan antioksidan. Stres oksidatif yang tinggi dapat menyebabkan kerusakan organel sel, enzim dan peningkatan peroksidasi lipid dan timbulnya komplikasi penyakit diabetes. Telomer adalah struktur DNA non-coding yang terdapat di ujung kromosom. Telomer merupakan untai tunggal kaya G, dengan urutan nukleotida (5'-TTAGGG-3'). DNA telomer sangat rentan terhadap kerusakan oksidatif pada urutan GGG. Stres oksidatif yang tinggi mengakibatkan pemendekan telomer dan proses penuaan lebih cepat. Pemendekan telomer pada penderita DM tipe 2 lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan bukan penderita DM.

Keywords


Diabetes Melitus; Telomer; Telomerase; Stres Oksidatif; Pemendekan Telomer

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33476/jky.v23i3.233

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