Disfungsi Telomer Pada Penyakit Autoimun

Endang Purwaningsih

Abstract


Telomer merupakan bagian ujung kromosom yang terdiri atas nukleotida non koding dan berfungsi mencegah terjadinya aberasi kromosom. Pemendekan telomer pada setiap kali siklus replikasi sel berhubungan dengan proses penuaan sel. Proses penuaan akan meningkatkan resiko penyakit autoimun. Faktor genetik dapat memicu hilangnya telomer yang diikuti dengan berkembangnya penyakit autoimun. Beberapa penyakit autoimun seperti rematoid artritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) atau lupus mengalami disfungsi telomer. Pada penderita SLE telomer sel-sel darahnya mengalami pemendekan bermakna terutama pada usia di bawah 45 tahun, yaitu sebesar 35 – 40 bp pertahun, sedangkan usia di atas 60 tahun, pemendekan telomer kurang bermakna. Tetapi aktifitas telomerase sel-sel darah pada pasien SLE cukup tinggi. Pada penderita rematoid artritis, pemendekan telomer mulai terjadi pada usia 25 – 40 tahun. Pada rematoid artritis HLA –DR+ mengalami pemendekan telomer 26 bp lebih besar pertahun dibandingkan HLA-DR-. Telomer pada penderita rematoid artritis laki-laki lebih pendek daripada penderita perempuan. Reduksi panjang telomer tidak berhubungan dengan lamanya menderita rematoid tetapi dipengaruhi oleh genotip HLA-DRB1. Aktivitas telomerase sel T penderita rematoid rendah sehingga mempercepat apoptosis.

Telomeres are the natural ends of linear chromosomes, consisting of non coding nucleotides and function to prevent chromosome abberation, whereas aging is considered as the effect of telomere shortening due to cell replication. In addition aging will increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Genetic factor can trigger telomere loss, followed by the development of autoimmune diseases. Dysfuntion of telomeres occurs in some of autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Telomere in blood cells of SLE patient significantly shortened in those under 45 years old, around 35-40 bps per year. However, in patients above 60 years old, no significant different is observed. Regardless the age, telomerase activity in blood cells in SLE patient is quite high. Telomere shortening occurs at the age of 25-40 years in RA patients. In RA patients, telomere in HLA –DR+ is shortened by 26 bp higher than HLA-DR- per year. RA male patients have shorter telomere than the female patients. Reduction of telomere length is not related with the period of rheumatic but affected by HLA-DRB1 genotype. Telomerase activity in T cells of RA patient are in ssufficent and lead to advance  apoptosis.


Keywords


telomere; immune; rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33476/jky.v21i1.21

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