Modal Sosial Kader Kesehatan dan Kepemimpinan Tokoh Masyarakat Dalam Penemuan Penderita Tuberkulosis

Endang Sutisna, Reviono Reviono, Arry Setyowati

Abstract


Tuberkulosis (TB) merupakan kedaruratan global bagi kemanusiaan. WHO menggulirkan Strategi DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course) dan Strategi Stop TB Partnership bertujuan untuk menjangkau semua penderita TB. Kedua strategi tersebut belum mampu mencapai target CDR (Case Detection Rate) secara konsisten. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh dan peran modal sosial kader kesehatan dan kepemimpinan tokoh masyarakat dalam penemuan TB paru BTA positif (CDR). Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dan studi kasus. Sasaran penelitian adalah Tim Penanggulangan TB di Puskesmas dan Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten, serta kader kesehatan, tokoh masyarakat, penderita TB, dan mantan penderita TB di Kabupaten Sukoharjo, Jawa Tengah. Hasil penelitian survei dengan analisis jalur menunjukkan, besaran pengaruh langsung modal sosial kader kesehatan terhadap CDR adalah 8,64%; pengaruh langsung kepemimpinan tokoh masyarakat terhadap CDR adalah 33%; dan pengaruh modal sosial kader kesehatan dan kepemimpinan tokoh masyarakat secara simultan terhadap CDR adalah 27,7%. Hasil penelitian studi kasus menyimpulkan, peran modal sosial kader kesehatan dalam CDR terdiri dari dimensi kognitif, relasional dan struktural. Dimensi kognitif meliputi kepedulian, saling percaya dan rasa memiliki antar anggota keluarga, warga masyarakat, serta kader dan petugas kesehatan. Dimensi relasional meliputi kerjasama dan komunikasi yang dilandasi nilai-nilai bersama. Dimensi struktural meliputi jaringan sosial, perkumpulan dan persatuan masyarakat. Peran kepemimpinan tokoh masyarakat dalam CDR adalah memberikan motivasi, tempat bertanya dan konsultasi, mengadakan pertemuan rutin, serta mengelola kegiatan dan menggalang donasi.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency for humanity. WHO launches DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course) and Stop TB Partnership strategies aiming to reach all people with TB. Both strategies have not been able to reach the target of CDR (case detection rate) consistently. This research aimed to analyze the effect and the role of health cadres’ social capital and community figures’ leadership in finding the people with positive-BTA pulmonary tuberculosis (CDR). The methods employed were survey and case study. The target of research was TB management team in Puskesmas (Public Health Centre) and Regency Health Service, and health cadres, community figures, people with TB, and people with TB previously in Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java. The result of research with path analysis showed that the size of direct effect of health cadres’ social capital on CDR was 8.64%; that of community figures’ leadership on CDR was 33%; and that of health cadres’ social capital and community figures’ leadership simultaneously on CDR was 27.7%. The result of case study research concluded that the role of health cadres’ social capital in CDR consisted of cognitive, relational and structural dimensions. Cognitive dimension included care, mutual trust, and sense of belonging among the members of family, members of society, and health cadres and workers. Relational dimension included cooperation and communication based on commonness value. Structural dimension included social network, community association and unity. The role of community figures’ leadership in CDR was that it provided motivation, served as the one to which any one asking question and consulting, conducted routine meeting, and managed activity and raised donation.


Keywords


social capital, leadership; tuberculosis; case detection rate

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33476/jky.v24i1.125

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