Overview of Bacterial Patterns in Diabetic Ulcer Patients at Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital and Fatmawati General Hospital and The Review According to Islamic Perspective


  • Vioni Alvida Achya
  • Fatimah Eliana
  • Andri Gunawan


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Complications of this disease are diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcer is an ulcer that occurs on the leg of a DM patient. One of the risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers is infection. Many diabetic foot ulcers are caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp. Method: This study used secondary data from medical records of bacterial culture of diabetic ulcer patients at the Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital and Fatmawati General Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021. Results: There are 10 most common types of bacteria at Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital, namely Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Citrobacter Koseri, Enterobacter Aerogenes, Staphylococcus Aureus, Enterococcus Faecalis, Proteus Mirabilis, Proteus Hauseri, Streptococcus Agalactiae and Cupriavidus Pauculus. At Fatmawati General Hospital, the highest number of 10 types of bacteria were found, namely Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Enterococcus Faecalis, Proteus Mirabilis, Staphylococcus Haemolyticus, Serratia Liquefaciens, Proteus Pennerii, and Providencia Rettgeri.Conclusion: The most common bacteria found in the two hospitals are Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae. In the view of Islam, Rasulullah shallallahu alaihi wa salam gives an example of a person who is healthy in body and soul as the owner of the whole world and its contents.



Abidah, N dan Marissa, N. 2016. Gambaran bakteri ulkus diabetikum di Rumah Sakit Zainal Abidin dan Meuraxa tahun 2015. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan. vol 44(3): 187-196.

Amstrong Dg, L. A. 1998. Diabetic foot ulcer: prevention, diagnosis and classification. Am Fam Physician., 5(6):1325-32.

Armstrong, D. G., Boulton, A. J. M. & Bus, S. A. 2017. Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Their Recurrence. N Engl J Med, 376, 2367-2375.

Ba., L. 2008 Infectious problems of the foot in diabetic patients. In: Browker JH, Pfeifer MA, editors. . Levin and O’Neal’s The Diabetic Foot (Seventh Edition). Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier p.305-18.

Boike Am, H. J. 2002. A practical guide for examining and treating the diabetic foot. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine., 69(4):342-8.

Cavanagh Pr, L. B., Bradbury & Aw, B. G. 2005 Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers. Lancet, 366: 1725-33.

Cck., B. 2001. Diabetic foot ulcers pathophysiology, assessment and therapy. Canadian Family Phycisian., 47:1007-16.

Clayton W, E. T. 2009 A review of pathophysiology, classification and treat- ment of foot ulcers in diabetic patients. Clinical Diabetes., 27(2):52-8.

Edmonds Me, F. E., Sanders Lf. 2004. A Practical Manual of Diabetic Foot Care. London: Blackwell Publishing.

Frykberg Rg, A. D., Giurini 2002 Diabetic foot ulcers: pathogenesis and management. Am Fam Physician. , 66:1655-62.

Frykberg Rg, A. D., Giurini & Jm, Z. T., Driver Vr, Kravitz Sr, Et Al. 2000. Diabetic foot disorders a clinical practice guidelines. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery., 35(5):S2-59.

Geraghty, T. & Laporta, G. 2019. Current health and economic burden of chronic diabetic osteomyelitis. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 19, 279-286.

Jeffcoate Wj, H. K. 2003 Diabetic foot ulcers., 261:1545-51.

Lipsky 2008 Infectious problems of the foot in diabetic patients. In: Browker JH, Pfeifer MA, editors. Levin and O’Neal’s The Diabetic Foot (Seventh Edition). Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier, p. 305-18.

Lipsky Ba, B. A., Deery Hg, Embil Jm, Joseph Ws, Karchmer Aw, Et Al. 2004. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clinical Infectious Disease., 39:885-910.

Lipsky, B. A., Tabak, Y., Johannes, R., Vo, L., Hyde, L. & Weigelt, J. 2010. Skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalised patients with diabetes: culture isolates and risk factors associated with mortality, length of stay and cost. Diabetologia, 53, 914-923.

Munro N, R. N., Mcintosh C, Foster, Avm, E. M. & 2003. Infections in the diabetic foot: a practical management guide to foot care. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease., 3:132-.

Simerjit S, D. R., Chew Y. 2013. Diabetic foot ulcer Diagnosis and management. . Clin Res Foot Ankle. , 1: 120.

Waspadji 2009. Kaki diabetes. Dalam: Sudayo AW, Setiyohadi B, Alwi I, Simadibrata MK, Setiati S, editor. . Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam (Edisi V Jilid III). Jakarta: Internal Publishing, p 1961-.

Weitz, J. I., Byrne, J., Clagett, G. P., Farkouh, M. E., Porter, J. M., Sackett, D. L., Strandness, D. E. & Taylor, L. M. 1996. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities: a critical review. Circulation, 94, 3026-3049.