Aplikasi Theory of Planned Behavior Pada Perilaku Pemberian ASI Eksklusif : Studi Kasus

Endang Sutisna

Abstract


ASI eksklusif bermanfaat bagi ibu, bayi, dan masyarakat. Salah satu intervensi untuk mencegah kematian bayi yaitu pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) secara eksklusif selama enam bulan. Sementara itu cakupan ASI eksklusif di Indonesia masih belum mencapai target. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengaplikasikan Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara sikap, norma subjektif, dan persepsi kendali perilaku dengan niat dan perilaku pemberian ASI eksklusif. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan metode penelitian studi kasus terpancang. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Karanganyar Provinsi Jawa Tengah, dengan mengambil 14 desa dari 177 desa. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April - Agustus 2016. Sasaran penelitian adalah ibu yang mempunyai bayi berusia antara 6-12 bulan dan stakeholders program ASI eksklusif di Puskesmas dan Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara purposif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui kajian dokumen, observasi partisipasi, wawancara mendalam dan fokus group diskusi (FGD). Wawancara mendalam dilakukan terhadap 49 informan terdiri dari ibu menyusui dari bayi berusia 6-12 bulan sebanyak 30 orang dan stakeholders program ASI eksklusif sebanyak 19 orang. Analisis data menggunakan analisis isi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa TPB memberikan kerangka untuk menjelaskan dimensi utama dari perilaku pemberian ASI eksklusif. Kesimpulan: Sikap, norma subjektif dan persepsi kendali perilaku secara kolektif berhubungan dengan niat perilaku dan niat merupakan anteseden langsung dari perilaku pemberian ASI eksklusif. Saran: meningkatkan cakupan program pemberian ASI eksklusif dapat dilakukan dengan membantu memperbaiki sikap positif, merubah norma subjektif untuk mendukung pemberian ASI eksklusif, memperbaiki kendali perilaku yang dirasakan, dan memperkuat niat pemberian ASI eksklusif.

Keywords


Theory of Planned Behavior, sikap, norma subjektif, persepsi kendali perilaku, perilaku pemberian ASI eksklusif

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