Pengaruh Kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merril) terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah dan Ekspresi Insulin Sel B Pankreas pada Tikus Diabetik

M Samsul Mustofa, Diniwati Mukhtar, Tri Susmiarsih Panjiasih, Aan Royhan

Abstract


Kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merril) telah digunakan di negara-negara Asia selama berabad-abad sebagai sumber protein yang utama dari tanaman. Kedelai mengandung isoflavon genistein, dadzein dan glycitein yang mempunyai aktivitas antioksidan. Ada dugaan isoflavone kedelai mempunyai aktivitas hipoglikemik dan dapat meningkatkan ekspresi insulin sel B pankreas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah Kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merril) menurunkan kadar glukosa darah, dan meningkatkan ekspresi insulin pulau Langerhans pada tikus yang diinduksi alloxan. Sejumlah 36 ekor tikus Wistar jantan dibagi menjadi 6 kelompok (3 kelompok perlakuan dan 3 kelompok kontrol). Alloxan disuntikkan secara intraperitoneal dengan dosis 150 mg/kg BB untuk menginduksi tikus menjadi diabetes pada grup perlakuan dan grup kontrol diabetes. Bubur kedelai (100, 200 dan 500 mg/kg BB/hari) diberikan personde pada grup perlakuan selama 4 minggu. Glukosa darah puasa diperiksa dari sampel darah yang diambil dari vena retroorbita sebelum perlakuan, 2 minggu dan 4 minggu setelah perlakuan, dan diukur dengan metode GOD-PAP. Pada hari ke 29 setelah perlakuan tikus didekapitasi dan jaringan pankreas diambil. Terhadap irisan paraffin pankreas dilakukan pewarnaan imunohistokimia menggunakan antibodi anti-insulin. Penilaian kualitatif ekspresi insulin dilihat dengan adanya warna coklat yang timbul pada pulau Langerhans. Data yang dianalisis dengan uji Anova nilai p < 0,05 menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar glukosa darah puasa pada kelompok perlakuan 500 mg/kgBB/hari mengalami penurunan mencapai kadar normal (100,38 mg/dl). Ekspresi insulin pada pulau Langerhans juga memperlihatkan peningkatan pada kelompok tikus DM dengan perlakuan. Sebagai kesimpulan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kedelai mempunyai aktivitas hipoglikemik dan meningkatkan ekspresi insulin. Peningkatan ekspresi insulin tersebut diduga disebabkan oleh adanya antioksidan yang berfungsi untuk melindungi sel ? pankreas dari apoptosis.

Keywords


kedelai; diabetes melitus; ekspresi insulin; isoflavon

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33476/jky.v18i2.183

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